GRAPE SEED EXTRACT
GRAPE SEED EXTRACT: ALL-ROUNDER NUTRITIONAL INGREDIENT
Grape seed extract as the name explains is a product obtained by crushing the grape seeds. It contains a phenolic compound named Proanthocyanidins, this is a flavonoid phytonutrient, belongs to a subgroup of tannins. These bioflavonoids or polyphenols make the grape seed extract medicinally important.
PHYTOCHEMICAL MAKEUP (CHEMICAL STRUCTURE):
Grape seeds contain protein (11%), fiber (35%), minerals (3%), and water (7%). In addition, the lipid content of grape seeds ranges from 7 to 20%. Grape seed extracts contain a heterogeneous mixture of monomers (5–30%), oligomers (17–63%), and polymers (11–39%) composed of proanthocyanidins. Proanthocyanidins are the major compound in grape seed extracts. The red color and astringent taste of grape seed extracts can be attributed to proanthocyanidins.
The market of grape seed extract is expanding due to the abundance of its potential health benefits. The willingness to opt for a medicine-free lifestyle making people, switch to natural and organic ingredients, leading to a market expansion of grape seed extract. Grape seed extract especially has a major availability in the US (particularly in North America), Europe, Japan for nutraceuticals, dietary supplements, pet food sector. India and Brazil are also expected to reflect lucrative market potential by significant grape production.
HISTORY OF GRAPE SEED EXTRACT AND PROCESS TO MAKE IT:
Seed is mostly believed to be a non-essential edible part of any fruit but a French researcher Jacques Masquelier 1940s realized that the grape seed can be very useful, he developed the extraction techniques of grape seed and explored it in-depth, and found that grape seeds have phytonutrients in it which can be a boon in medical science. These phytonutrients present in grape seed were characterized and called as OPCs (Oligomeric Proanthocyanidin Complexes) or condensed tannins.
Researchers have developed many ways to get grape seed extract, the basic extraction procedure includes separation of seed from the skin and stems, drying of seed naturally, grinding it at slow speed, defatting of seed using solvent, solvent extraction of seeds by temperature-controlled percolation method.
The scientist has found another method of extraction that doesn’t require solvents, as solvent residues in the extract can be harmful to humans. This method involves water in place of solvents; the dried seeds are heated with increased pressure and reduced oxygen, to get mixtures of OPCs in water. Extraction is done by reverse osmosis. By the above-mentioned ways, grape seed extract can be achieved.
THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF GRAPE SEED EXTRACT:
Grape seed phytonutrients were found very effective in various health issues. The oligomeric Proanthocyanidin complexes OPCs of grape seed are responsible for its therapeutic activity, they exhibit properties like powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, good for heart health, ensure good eye health, helps to manage blood sugar, protects and enhances cognitive function, good for skin related problems.
CITING FEW CLINICAL TRIALS WHICH GIVE EVIDENCE OF THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY OF GRAPE SEED EXTRACT
A lot of research is been done on Grape seed extract and the clinical data establishes the secondary metabolites of grape seed the Bioflavonoids and polyphenols associates with important medicinal properties.
GPSE AS A POTENTIAL NOVEL THERAPEUTIC AGENT IN A SPECIFIC GROUP OF NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS:
Pasinetti .et.al, in the Journal of neurochemistry, reported that grape seed-derived polyphenolic extracts (GPSE) are potent to prevent tau fibrillization into neurotoxic aggregates and also promote the dissociation of preformed tau aggregates, which are the main cause of a diverse group of neurodegenerative diseases called Tauopathies, it includes Alzheimer’s, supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration. The above finding was reported based on extensive bioavailability, bioactivity, and functional preclinical studies done on laboratory animals and humans. (Journal of Neurochemistry, 27 Jul 2010, 114(6):1557-1568)
THE BENEFICIAL EFFECT OF GRAPE SEED EXTRACT ON DYSLIPIDEMIA:
The report published by Cambridge University shows the data of the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on lipid profiles. The report concludes that GSE supplementation has favorably affected the serum levels of LDL and TAG concentrations. There was a significant reduction in these lipids in studies with a dosage of <300mg/d of GSE, in < 10 weeks of intervention. Therefore Grape extract can be beneficial in dyslipidemia.
THE THERAPEUTIC BENEFIT OF GRAPE SEED EXTRACT IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES:
Bagchi. et. al. in-vitro studies have demonstrated that the Grape seed Proanthocyanidin in their dimeric, trimeric, and polymeric tannin structures act as free radical scavengers and may prevent the oxidation of LDL –cholesterol. Therefore, they have an important role in decreasing the progression of cardiovascular diseases.
GRAPE SEED EXTRACT IMPROVES HYPERGLYCEMIA AND HYPERINSULINAEMIA:
Preclinical studies showed Grape seed extract (GSE) improves hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinaemia in high-fructose-fed rats. Result suggests that grape seed extract ameliorates the defective insulin and adiponectin signaling pathways in the skeletal muscle, resulting in improved insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats.
GRAPE SEED EXTRACT CAN PROTECT HUMAN LENS EPITHELIAL CELLS:
Proanthocyanidin of the grape seed extract can protect eyes from cataractogenesis, by attenuating H2O2 oxidative stress and activating protein complex (NF –kB and MAPK) signaling.
SYNERGISTIC ANTI-CANCER EFFECT OF GRAPE SEED EXTRACT AGAINST HUMAN BREAST CARCINOMA CELLS:
Girish Sharma et.al of the University of Colorado health sciences center, Denver, USA studied the anti-cancer effects of grape seed extract alone and also in combination with different chemotherapy drugs and observed Grape seed extract (25-200ug/ml) of dose, in a time-dependent manner resulted in 16-72% growth inhibition and 9-33% cell death.
GRAPE SEED EXTRACT IN HAIR GROWTH:
Grape seed help prevent hair fall due to its DHT blocking effect. The result may be attributed to high percentage of proanthocyanidins in GSE. The other nutritive benefit of GSE can be the reason behind reduced hair fall.
INTERESTING FACT OF GRAPE SEED EXTRACT:
- The free radical-scavenging ability of Grape seed extract has been indicated to be fifty times greater than that of vitamins C and E and β-carotene.
- The grape seed extracts oligomeric Proanthocyanidin OPCs are rich in dimeric, trimeric, and monomeric molecules, which are smaller thus can be easily absorbed in the body.
- We can get 60 to 70% OPCs from the seed of the grape.
- The % of OPCs in grape seed extract depends on the plant variety, extraction procedure, and other factors like harvest time, etc.
THE CHALLENGES WITH GRAPE SEED EXTRACT:
A certain study establishes grape seed extracts blood-thinning effects. This makes GSE use limited, as people suffering from a bleeding disorder or who have to undergo surgery are suggested not to take grape seed extract. Because of this property, GSE can cross-react with certain drugs. It’s advisable to consult a doctor before taking GSE supplements if already taking any drug.
All the therapeutic benefits of grape are in the form of OPCs, which is present in high concentration in the seed of the grape. As one cannot consume the seed as such, the grape seed extract is the way to get it. The OPCs of the grape have good bioavailability and have been proved beneficial in many health conditions like diabetes, cardiovascular problems, skin, and eye lens-related problems, etc. Its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effect is making it more desirable.